Why be Ethical?
The happy [person] lives well and does well; for we have practically defined happiness as a sort of good life and good
The Ethical Experience
Ethical: pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong
There are four ethical experiences that are all part of what it means to be human, these four experiences are...
The Scream- the experience of personal response.
The Beggar- the experience of the other.
"I have to..."- the experience of obligation.
This is Intolerable! This isn't Fair!- the experience of contrast.
You are what you do
-explored the natural world and human experience.
-human life is shaped to its full extent in the context of the community.
-believes that happiness is the condition of the good person who succeeds in living and acting well.
-his primary focus was to discover "the good" in humans.
-he also believes that in order for a person to be truly happy if "over some period of time, [that person] frequently performs
with some success the most perfect of typically human tasks."
-"To act ethically, therefore, is to engage our capacity to reason as we develop good character."
-Aristotle believes that humans should avoid exess and be moderate in all things.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804):
-Kant's main focus was to discover how humans come to know things.
-He asked questions such as "what role does our experience play in our coming to know something?" and "can we know things
beyound our immediate experience?"
-the laws of cause and effect rule over human behaviors.
-Kant believe that humans make decisions based not only on impulse or laws of nature, but on conscience or based on our own
-"good is the aim of a moral life."
-happiness is found in a private life rather than Aristotle's theory of happiness found in communities.
-believed that our morals are based on our own good will and our duty to honour.
Emmanuel Levinas (1905-1995):
-believed that everything was stamped with "sameness".
-Searched for the good in things.
-Believed that unique things were traces of the good, or God.
-Nothing can be identical to God or the good.
-The good is infinite.
Agent: A person who acts freely and knowingly, who chooses to do or not do something; a person who is accountable
for his or her actions or omissions.
Conceptual framework of action is a series of questions that help us to understand the complexity of a human action.
These questions are...
Who? the agent
What? the action
Why? the motive
How? with what means?
With whom or against whom?
Under what circumstances?
With what outcome?
Human Freedom: The human capacity to ch oose and to act. I am free because i have possibilites and
capacities to act on these possibilities.
Naturalism: The belief that everything is shaped completely by physical, biological, psychological, social and
Determinism: A point of view that holds that human behavior is a product, not of free will, but of a complex array
of physical, social, cultural, psychological and historical causes.